Ricardo Bruña

I have an MsC. on IT engineering by Universidad de Valladolid and a PhD. on biomedical engineering by the Technical University of Madrid. I work on the Laboratory for Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience since 2011, and my focus is on the development of methods to clean and analyze electrophysiological signals as measured by EEG and MEG.

In these years I have worked both on methods development and on its application to aging, tremor and alcohol consumption. I have also worked on the development of HERMES, a toolbox for the calculation of functional and effective connectivity.

Main publications


  • Bruña R, Vaghari D, Greve A, Cooper E, Mada MO, Henson RN. Modified MRI Anonymization (De-Facing) for Improved MEG Coregistration. Bioengineering (Basel). 2022 Oct; 9(10):. PubMed ID: 36290559. PDF file PDF file.
  • Gomez-Arguelles JM, Lopez I, Rodriguez-Rojo IC, Romero V, Sabater C, Corral M, Bruna R, Maestu C. Modification of Alpha Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fibromyalgia After Very Low Intensity Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Pain Physician. 2022 09; 25(6):E831-E840. PubMed ID: 36122266. PDF file PDF file.
  • Chino B, Cuesta P, Pacios J, de Frutos-Lucas J, Torres-Simón L, Doval S, Marcos A, Bruña R, Maestú F. Episodic memory dysfunction and hypersynchrony in brain functional networks in cognitively intact subjects and MCI: a study of 379 individuals. Geroscience. 2022 Sep; In press. PubMed ID: 36109436. PDF file PDF file.
  • Antón-Toro LF, Bruña R, Del Cerro-León A, Shpakivska D, Mateos-Gordo P, Porras-Truque C, García-Gómez R, Maestú F, García-Moreno LM. Electrophysiological resting-state hyperconnectivity and poorer behavioural regulation as predisposing profiles of adolescent binge drinking. Addict Biol. 2022 07; 27(4):e13199. PubMed ID: 35754100. PDF file PDF file.
  • Vaghari D, Bruna R, Hughes LE, Nesbitt D, Tibon R, Rowe JB, Maestu F, Henson RN. A multi-site, multi-participant magnetoencephalography resting-state dataset to study dementia: The BioFIND dataset. Neuroimage. 2022 09; 258:119344. PubMed ID: 35660461. PDF file PDF file.
  • Aoki Y, Kazui H, Pascual-Marqui RD, Bruña R, Yoshiyama K, Wada T, Kanemoto H, Suzuki Y, Suehiro T, Satake Y, Yamakawa M, Hata M, Canuet L, Ishii R, Iwase M, Ikeda M. Normalized Power Variance: A new Field Orthogonal to Power in EEG Analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2022 Mar; In press. PubMed ID: 35345930. PDF file PDF file.
  • Swart TR, Banissy MJ, Hein TP, Bruña R, Pereda E, Bhattacharya J. ASMR amplifies low frequency and reduces high frequency oscillations. Cortex. 2022 04; 149:85-100. PubMed ID: 35189396. PDF file PDF file.
  • Bruña R, López-Sanz D, Maestú F, Cohen AD, Bagic A, Huppert T, Kim T, Roush RE, Snitz B, Becker JT. MEG Oscillatory Slowing in Cognitive Impairment is Associated with the Presence of Subjective Cognitive Decline. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2022 Feb; In press. PubMed ID: 35188831. PDF file PDF file.
  • Suárez-Méndez I, Bruña R, López-Sanz D, Montejo P, Montenegro-Peña M, Delgado-Losada ML, Marcos Dolado A, López-Higes R, Maestú F. Cognitive Training Modulates Brain Hypersynchrony in a Population at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2022; 86(3):1185-1199. PubMed ID: 35180120.
  • Bruña R, Maestú F, López-Sanz D, Bagic A, Cohen AD, Chang YF, Cheng Y, Doman J, Huppert T, Kim T, Roush RE, Snitz BE, Becker JT. Sex Differences in Magnetoencephalography-Identified Functional Connectivity in the Human Connectome Project Connectomics of Brain Aging and Dementia Cohort. Brain Connect. 2022 08; 12(6):561-570. PubMed ID: 34726478. PDF file PDF file.


  • Cohen AD, Bruña R, Chang YF, Cheng Y, Doman J, Huppert T, Kim T, Maestu F, Roush RE, Snitz BE, Becker JT. Connectomics in Brain Aging and Dementia - The Background and Design of a Study of a Connectome Related to Human Disease. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021; 13:669490. PubMed ID: 34690734. PDF file PDF file.
  • Ramírez-Toraño F, Abbas K, Bruña R, Marcos de Pedro S, Gómez-Ruiz N, Barabash A, Pereda E, Marcos A, López-Higes R, Maestu F, Goñi J. A Structural Connectivity Disruption One Decade before the Typical Age for Dementia: A Study in Healthy Subjects with Family History of Alzheimer's Disease. Cereb Cortex Commun. 2021; 2(4):tgab051. PubMed ID: 34647029.
  • Hatlestad-Hall C, Bruña R, Erichsen A, Andersson V, Syvertsen MR, Skogan AH, Renvall H, Marra C, Maestú F, Heuser K, Taubøll E, Solbakk AK, Haraldsen IH. The organization of functional neurocognitive networks in focal epilepsy correlates with domain-specific cognitive performance. J Neurosci Res. 2021 Jun; In press. PubMed ID: 34173259. PDF file PDF file.
  • Hatlestad-Hall C, Bruña R, Syvertsen MR, Erichsen A, Andersson V, Vecchio F, Miraglia F, Rossini PM, Renvall H, Taubøll E, Maestú F, Haraldsen IH. Source-level EEG and graph theory reveal widespread functional network alterations in focal epilepsy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 Jul; 132(7):1663-1676. PubMed ID: 34044189. PDF file PDF file.
  • Carrasco-Gómez M, Keijzer HM, Ruijter BJ, Bruña R, Tjepkema-Cloostermans MC, Hofmeijer J, van Putten MJAM. EEG functional connectivity contributes to outcome prediction of postanoxic coma. Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 Jun; 132(6):1312-1320. PubMed ID: 33867260. PDF file PDF file.
  • Ramírez-Toraño F, García-Alba J, Bruña R, Esteba-Castillo S, Vaquero L, Pereda E, Maestú F, Fernández A. Hypersynchronized Magnetoencephalography Brain Networks in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome. Brain Connect. 2021 Jun; In press. PubMed ID: 33858203.
  • Antón-Toro LF, Bruña R, Suárez-Méndez I, Correas Á, García-Moreno LM, Maestú F. Abnormal organization of inhibitory control functional networks in future binge drinkers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 01; 218:108401. PubMed ID: 33246710. PDF file PDF file.
  • Sanchez-Bornot JM, Lopez ME, Bruña R, Maestu F, Youssofzadeh V, Yang S, Finn DP, Todd S, McLean PL, Prasad G, Wong-Lin K. High-dimensional brain-wide functional connectivity mapping in magnetoencephalography. J Neurosci Methods. 2021 01; 348:108991. PubMed ID: 33181166.
  • Ramírez-Toraño F, Bruña R, de Frutos-Lucas J, Rodríguez-Rojo IC, Marcos de Pedro S, Delgado-Losada ML, Gómez-Ruiz N, Barabash A, Marcos A, López Higes R, Maestú F. Functional Connectivity Hypersynchronization in Relatives of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Early E/I Balance Dysfunction? Cereb Cortex. 2021 Jan; 31(2):1201-1210. PubMed ID: 33108468. PDF file PDF file.


  • de Frutos-Lucas J, Cuesta P, Ramírez-Toraño F, Nebreda A, Cuadrado-Soto E, Peral-Suárez Á, Lopez-Sanz D, Bruña R, Marcos-de Pedro S, Delgado-Losada ML, López-Sobaler AM, Concepción Rodríguez-Rojo I, Barabash A, Serrano Rodriguez JM, Laws SM, Dolado AM, López-Higes R, Brown BM, Maestú F. Age and APOE genotype affect the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and power in the alpha band, a marker of brain disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020 09; 12(1):113. PubMed ID: 32962736.
  • Aoki Y, Kazui H, Bruña R, Pascual-Marqui RD, Yoshiyama K, Wada T, Kanemoto H, Suzuki Y, Suehiro T, Matsumoto T, Kakeda K, Hata M, Canuet L, Ishii R, Iwase M, Ikeda M. Normalized power variance of eLORETA at high-convexity area predicts shunt response in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Sci Rep. 2020 08; 10(1):13054. PubMed ID: 32747671.
  • Sion A, Bruña Fernández R, Martínez Maldonado A, Domínguez Centeno I, Torrado-Carvajal A, Rubio G, Pereda E, Jurado-Barba R. Resting-state connectivity and network parameter analysis in alcohol-dependent males. A simultaneous EEG-MEG study. J Neurosci Res. 2020 10; 98(10):1857-1876. PubMed ID: 32585750.
  • de Frutos-Lucas J, Cuesta P, López-Sanz D, Peral-Suárez Á, Cuadrado-Soto E, Ramírez-Toraño F, Brown BM, Serrano JM, Laws SM, Rodríguez-Rojo IC, Verdejo-Román J, Bruña R, Delgado-Losada ML, Barabash A, López-Sobaler AM, López-Higes R, Marcos A, Maestú F. The relationship between physical activity, apolipoprotein E ε4 carriage, and brain health. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020 04; 12(1):48. PubMed ID: 32331531.
  • Shumbayawonda E, López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Serrano N, Fernández A, Maestú F, Abasolo D. Complexity changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: An MEG study of subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment. Clin Neurophysiol. 2020 02; 131(2):437-445. PubMed ID: 31884374.
  • Serrano N, López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Garcés P, Rodríguez-Rojo IC, Marcos A, Crespo DP, Maestú F. Spatiotemporal Oscillatory Patterns During Working Memory Maintenance in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Subjective Cognitive Decline. Int J Neural Syst. 2020 Jan; 30(1):1950019. PubMed ID: 31522594.


  • Shumbayawonda E, Abásolo D, López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Maestu F, Fernández A. Sex Differences in the Complexity of Healthy Older Adults' Magnetoencephalograms. Entropy (Basel). 2019 Aug; 21(8):. PubMed ID: 33267511.
  • Pusil S, López ME, Cuesta P, Bruña R, Pereda E, Maestú F. Hypersynchronization in mild cognitive impairment: the 'X' model. Brain. 2019 12; 142(12):3936-3950. PubMed ID: 31633176. PDF file PDF file.
  • García-Alba J, Ramírez-Toraño F, Esteba-Castillo S, Bruña R, Moldenhauer F, Novell R, Romero-Medina V, Maestú F, Fernández A. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological characterization of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome. Neurobiol Aging. 2019 12; 84:70-79. PubMed ID: 31518951.
  • López-Sanz D, Bruña R, de Frutos-Lucas J, Maestú F. Magnetoencephalography applied to the study of Alzheimer's disease. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2019; 165:25-61. PubMed ID: 31481165.
  • Hughes LE, Henson RN, Pereda E, Bruña R, López-Sanz D, Quinn AJ, Woolrich MW, Nobre AC, Rowe JB, Maestú F, . Biomagnetic biomarkers for dementia: A pilot multicentre study with a recommended methodological framework for magnetoencephalography. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2019 Dec; 11:450-462. PubMed ID: 31431918.
  • López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Delgado-Losada ML, López-Higes R, Marcos-Dolado A, Maestú F, Walter S. Electrophysiological brain signatures for the classification of subjective cognitive decline: towards an individual detection in the preclinical stages of dementia. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2019 06; 11(1):49. PubMed ID: 31151467.


  • Rodríguez-Rojo IC, Cuesta P, López ME, de Frutos-Lucas J, Bruña R, Pereda E, Barabash A, Montejo P, Montenegro-Peña M, Marcos A, López-Higes R, Fernández A, Maestú F. Val66Met Polymorphism and Gamma Band Disruption in Resting State Brain Functional Connectivity: A Magnetoencephalography Study in Cognitively Intact Older Females. Front Neurosci. 2018; 12:684. PubMed ID: 30333719. PDF file PDF file.
  • Bruña R, Maestú F, Pereda E. Phase locking value revisited: teaching new tricks to an old dog. J Neural Eng. 2018 10; 15(5):056011. PubMed ID: 29952757.
  • Dimitriadis SI, López ME, Bruña R, Cuesta P, Marcos A, Maestú F, Pereda E. How to Build a Functional Connectomic Biomarker for Mild Cognitive Impairment From Source Reconstructed MEG Resting-State Activity: The Combination of ROI Representation and Connectivity Estimator Matters. Front Neurosci. 2018; 12:306. PubMed ID: 29910704. PDF file PDF file.


  • López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Garcés P, Martín-Buro MC, Walter S, Delgado ML, Montenegro M, López Higes R, Marcos A, Maestú F. Functional Connectivity Disruption in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Common Pattern of Alterations. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017; 9:109. PubMed ID: 28484387. PDF file PDF file.


  • López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Garcés P, Camara C, Serrano N, Rodríguez-Rojo IC, Delgado ML, Montenegro M, López-Higes R, Yus M, Maestú F. Alpha band disruption in the AD-continuum starts in the Subjective Cognitive Decline stage: a MEG study. Sci Rep. 2016 11; 6:37685. PubMed ID: 27883082. PDF file PDF file.
  • López ME, Turrero A, Cuesta P, López-Sanz D, Bruña R, Marcos A, Gil P, Yus M, Barabash A, Cabranes JA, Maestú F, Fernández A. Searching for Primary Predictors of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease: A Multivariate Follow-Up Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 03; 52(1):133-43. PubMed ID: 27060953. PDF file PDF file.


  • Camara C, Warwick K, Bruña R, Aziz T, del Pozo F, Maestú F. A Fuzzy Inference System for Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease. J Med Syst. 2015 Nov; 39(11):155. PubMed ID: 26385550.
  • Cuesta P, Garcés P, Castellanos NP, López ME, Aurtenetxe S, Bajo R, Pineda-Pardo JA, Bruña R, Marín AG, Delgado M, Barabash A, Ancín I, Cabranes JA, Fernandez A, Del Pozo F, Sancho M, Marcos A, Nakamura A, Maestú F. Influence of the APOE ε4 allele and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in the disruption of the MEG resting state functional connectivity in sources space. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015; 44(2):493-505. PubMed ID: 25281603. PDF file PDF file.


  • López ME, Bruña R, Aurtenetxe S, Pineda-Pardo JÁ, Marcos A, Arrazola J, Reinoso AI, Montejo P, Bajo R, Maestú F. Alpha-band hypersynchronization in progressive mild cognitive impairment: a magnetoencephalography study. J Neurosci. 2014 Oct; 34(44):14551-9. PubMed ID: 25355209. PDF file PDF file.
  • Pineda-Pardo JA, Bruña R, Woolrich M, Marcos A, Nobre AC, Maestú F, Vidaurre D. Guiding functional connectivity estimation by structural connectivity in MEG: an application to discrimination of conditions of mild cognitive impairment. Neuroimage. 2014 Nov; 101:765-77. PubMed ID: 25111472. PDF file PDF file.
  • López ME, Aurtenetxe S, Pereda E, Cuesta P, Castellanos NP, Bruña R, Niso G, Maestú F, Bajo R. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014; 6:125. PubMed ID: 24982632. PDF file PDF file.


  • Niso G, Bruña R, Pereda E, Gutiérrez R, Bajo R, Maestú F, del-Pozo F. HERMES: towards an integrated toolbox to characterize functional and effective brain connectivity. Neuroinformatics. 2013 Oct; 11(4):405-34. PubMed ID: 23812847. PDF file PDF file.


  • Bruña R, Poza J, Gómez C, García M, Fernández A, Hornero R. Analysis of spontaneous MEG activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using spectral entropies and statistical complexity measures. J Neural Eng. 2012 Jun; 9(3):036007. PubMed ID: 22571870. PDF file PDF file.


  • Bruña R, Poza J, Gómez C, Fernández A, Hornero R. Analysis of spontaneous MEG activity in mild cognitive impairment using spectral entropies and disequilibrium measures. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010; 2010:6296-9. PubMed ID: 21097360. PDF file PDF file.

Other publications

de Frutos-Lucas J, López-Sanz D, Cuesta P, Bruña R, de la Fuente S, Serrano N, López ME, Delgado-Losada ML, López-Higes R, Marcos A, Maestú F. Enhancement of posterior brain functional networks in bilingual older adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 2019; https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728919000178

Camara C, Warwick K, Bruña R, Aziz T, Pereda E. Closed-loop deep brain stimulation based on a stream-clustering system. Expert Syst. Appl. 2019; 126: 187-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2019.02.024

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